Some facts about Indian Constitution
- The Constitution Was Originally Written in Hindi and English
- With 25 parts containing 448 articles and 12 schedules,
- It is the longest constitution in the world and the constitution was not typed or printed, it was handwritten by Prem Behari Narain Raizada.
- Each page was decorated by artists from Shantiniketan.
- The original copies of handwritten constitution are stored in special helium filled cases in the Library of the Parliament of India.
- The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic which assures its citizens justice, equality, liberty and fraternity.
- Constituent Assembly of India met first time in 9th Dec 1946 and took three years to write down the constitution.( precisely 2 years, 11 months and 18 days)
- Around 2000 amendments were made in the first draft and on 26th Nov 1949 the final draft was ready.
- On 24th Jan 1950 the constitution was signed and 26th Jan it was legally enforced. On the same day the national emblem was adopted.
It is right to say that many of the Indian laws and including the constitution have borrowed lot of provisions from British enactments and main reason was nothing but the colonial status.
- The slogan liberty, equality and fraternity have been borrowed from French constitution.
- Five year plans have been borrowed from the erstwhile USSR constitution.
- Constitution of Japan have given us the laws governing supreme court and the concept of procedure established by law.
- The preamble of the constitution was inspired by the US constitution.
- The concept of directive principles came from Irish constitution.
- Till 2019 the constitution was amended 94 times in 60 years.
Here is the list of 79 most important articles of the Indian Constitution:-
1. Article No. 1:- Name and territory of the Union
2. Article No. 3:- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states
3. Article No. 13:- Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the Fundamental Rights
4. Article No. 14:- Equality before the law
5. Article No. 16:- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
6. Article No. 17:- Abolition of untouchability
7. Article No. 19:- Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc.
8. Article No. 21:- Protection of life and personal liberty
9. Article No. 21A:- Right to elementary education
10. Article No. 25:- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
11. Article No. 30:- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
12. Article No. 31C:- Saving of laws giving effect to certain Directive Principles
13. Article No. 32:- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights including writs
14. Article No. 38:- State to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people
15. Article No.40:- Organisation of village panchayats
16. Article No. 44:- Uniform Civil Code for the citizens
17. Article No. 45:- Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of 6 years.
18. Article No. 46:- Promotion of educational and economic interests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections
19. Article No. 50:- Separation of judiciary from the executive
20. Article No. 51:- Promotion of international peace and security
21. Article No. 51A:- Fundamental Duties
22. Article No. 72:- Powers of President to grant pardons, suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
23. Article No. 74:- Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President
24. Article No. 76:- Attorney-General of India
25. Article No. 78:- Duties of the Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.
26. Article No. 110:- Definition of Money Bills
27. Article No. 112:- Annual Financial Statement (Budget)
28. Article No. 123:- Power of President to promulgate ordinances during recess of Parliament
29. Article No. 143:- Power of President to consult Supreme Court
30. Article No. 148:- Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
31. Article No. 149:- Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India
32. Article No. 155:- Appointment of the Governor
33. Article No. 161:- Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases
34. Article No. 163:- Council of Ministers to aid and advise the Governor
35. Article No. 165:-Advocate-General of the state
Which British Laws are still used in India
36. Article No. 167:- Duties of Chief Minister with regard to the furnishing of information to the Governor, etc.
37. Article No. 168:- Constitution of Legislatures in the states
38. Article No. 169:- Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in the states
39. Article No. 170:- Composition of Legislative Assemblies in the states
40. Article No. 171:- Composition of Legislative Councils in the states
41. Article No. 172:- Duration of State Legislatures
42. Article No. 173:- Qualification for membership of the State Legislature
43. Article No. 174:- Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution
44. Article No. 178:- Speakers and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly
45. Article No. 194:- Powers, privileges, and immunity of Advocate-General
46. Article No. 200:- Assent to bills by the governor (including reservation for President)
47. Article No. 202:-Annual financial statement of the State Legislature
48. Article No. 210:- Language to be used in the State Legislature
49. Article No. 212:- Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the State Legislature
50. Article No. 213:- Power of governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of the State Legislature
51. Article No. 214:- High courts for the states
52. Article No. 217:-Appointment and the conditions of the office of the judge of a High Court
53. Article No. 226:- Power of high courts to issue certain writs
54. Article No. 239AA:- Special provisions with respect to Delhi
55. Article No. 243B:- Constitution of Panchayats
56. Article No. 243C:- Composition of Panchayats
57. Article No. 243G:- Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats
58. Article No. 243K:- Elections to the Panchayats
59. Article No. 249:-Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest
60. Article No. 262:- Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-state rivers or river valleys
61. Article No. 263:- Provisions with respect to an inter-state council
62. Article No. 265:- Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law
63. Article No. 275:- Grants from the Union to certain states
64. Article No. 280:- Finance Commission
65. Article No. 300:- Suits and proceedings
66. Article No. 300A:- Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law (Right to property)
67. Article No. 311:- Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a state.
68. Article No. 312:- All-India Services
69. Article No. 315:- Public Service Commission for the Union and for the states
70. Article No. 320:- Functions of Public Service Commissions
71. Article No. 323-A:- Administrative Tribunals
72. Article No. 324:- Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission
73. Article No. 330:- Reservation of seats for scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in the House of the People
74. Article No. 335:- Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts
75. Article No. 352:- Proclamation of Emergency (National Emergency)
76. Article No. 356:- Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in states (President’s Rule)
77. Article No. 360:- Provisions as to Financial Emergency.
78. Article No. 365:- Effect of failure to comply with or to give effect to, directions given by the Union (President’s Rule)
79. Article No. 368:- Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefore.